Other reports and publications

Journal articles and research papers

This page lists articles published in peer-reviewed journals by researchers using data from GUS and reports commissioned by stakeholder organisations. Publications are listed in chronological order.

Please note that to access most journal articles you will require an Athens username and password. You can apply for an NHS Health Scotland Athens username and password if you work in Scotland are NHS staff, social services staff, voluntary sector staff or working in partnership with the NHS. For a full list of criteria and to register, please visit the Knowledge Network website.


Growing up in Scotland: obesity from early childhood to adolescence. Miall, N. and Pearce, A. (2024) Obesity Action Scotland. doi: 10.36399/gla.pubs.319087

The kids are alright: Adolescents and their fathers in the UK – a review of data in six longitudinal studies. Goldman, R. and Burgess, A. (2024). Contemporary Fathers in the UK series. London: Fatherhood Institute


The kids are alright: Adolescents and their fathers in the UK - research review. Burgess, A. and Goldman, R. (2023). Contemporary Fathers in the UK series. London: Fatherhood Institute

Primary–secondary school transition experiences and factors associated with differences in these experiences: Analysis of the longitudinal Growing Up in Scotland dataset. Jindal-Snape, D., Bradshaw, P., Gilbert, A., Smith, N. and Knudsen, L. (2023) Review of Education 11(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/rev3.3444

Children living with domestic abuse: Social inequalities in mother and child experiences and repercussions for children’s wellbeing – Final Project Report, Skafida, V., Devaney, J., Morrison F. University of Edinburgh (2023)

Evaluation of the Healthy Start voucher scheme on maternal vitamin use and child breastfeeding: a natural experiment using data linkageDundas, R., Boroujerdi, M., Browne, S., Deidda, M., Bradshaw, P., Craig, P., et al. Public Health Res (2023); 11(11)

The indivisibility of parental and child mental health and why poverty matters, Treanor, M. and Troncoso, P. Journal of Adolescent Health73(3), pp. 470-477.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2023.04.012

Asking the right questions? A critical overview of longitudinal survey data on intimate partner violence and abuse among adults and young people in the UK, Skafida, V., Feder, G. and Barter, C. Journal of Family Violence (2023) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-023-00501-1

Risk and protective factors for children’s psychopathology in the context of domestic violence – a study using nationally representative longitudinal survey data. Skafida, V. and Devaney, J. Child Abuse and Neglect, Volume 135, [105991]. (2023)


Methods for analysing the relationship between poverty, parental work intensity, child emotional symptoms and conduct problems over time, Tronsco, P. and Treanor, M., MethodsX; 10 (2022)

Inequalities in children’s exposure to alcohol outlets in Scotland: a GPS study, Caryl, F.M., Pearce, J., Mitchell, R. et al. BMC Public Health 2022; 22, 1749. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-14151-3

Multi-trajectories of conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer problems across childhood: Results from the Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort, Morales Larrazabal, MF, MacBeth, A, Swartzman, S & Girard, L-C Edinburgh Research Explorer: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 51(1), 55-69. (2022)

Answer Refused: Exploring How Item Non-response on Domestic Abuse Questions in a Social Survey Affects Analysis, Skafida, V., Morrison, F., and Devaney, J. Survey Research Methods; Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 227-240 (2022)
doi:10.18148/srm/2022.v16i2.7823, European Survey Research Association.

Intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Scotland – Insights from nationally representative longitudinal survey data, Skafida, V., Morrison, F., and Devaney, J. Child Abuse & Neglect, 2022; Vol 132 (2022) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2022.105784

Validity of Scottish predictors of child obesity (age 12) for risk screening in mid-childhood: a secondary analysis of prospective cohort study data—with sensitivity analyses for settings without various routinely collected predictor variables, Carrillo-Balam, G., Doi, L., Marryat, L., Williams A.J., Bradshaw, P. and Frank, J. International Journal of Obesity, (2022)

Persistent association between family socioeconomic status and primary school performance in Britain over 95 years’ von Stumm, S., Cave, S. N., and Wakeling, P. npj Science of Learning7(1), 1-8. (2022)

The long road to secondary school: background, home learning environment, and transition difficulties in Scotland Smyth, E. and Privalko, I. Research Papers in Education, (2022)
DOI: 10.1080/02671522.2022.2065520

Changes in Cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood: The Role of Family Income and Volatility Sosu, E. M. and Schmidt, P. Frontiers in Psychology (2022)


‘Mothers’ employment and child behaviour: new evidence for Scotland’ Jacob, M.,  and Kühhirt, M. in Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 12(4), 551-571. (2021) 

‘Do neighbourhood characteristics matter in understanding school children’s active lifestyles? A cross-region multi-city comparison of Glasgow, Edinburgh and Hong Kong’ Olsen, J. R., Leung, K. Y., Nicholls, N., and Loo, B. P. for Children’s geographies19(4), 488-504. (2021) 

‘The Role of Social and Emotional Adjustment in Mediating the Relationship Between Early Experiences and Different Language Outcomes’ Law, J., Tamayo, N., Mckean, C., and Rush, R. Frontiers in psychiatry12. (2021) 

‘Predictors of emotional problems in 5-year-old children: an international comparison between two cohorts in Chile and Scotland’ Farkas, C., Girard, L. C., & MacBeth, A. for Current Psychology, 1-16. (2021) 

‘The Effect of Parental and Grandparental Supervision Time Investment on Children’s Early-Age Development’ Milovanska-Farrington, S. for Research in Economics 75(3), 286-304 (2021)

How can an agent-based model explore the impact of interventions on children’s physical activity in an urban environment? Almagor, J., Martin, A., McCrorie, P. and Mitchell, R. Health and Place. Volume 72: 102688 (2021) 

Like mother, like child? Sex differences in the maternal transmission of offending among a Scottish cohort of pre-adolescent children Jahanshahi, B., McVie, S. and  Murray, K. in Criminology & Criminal Justice (2021)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/17488958211056177 

[PDF] Briefing paper: Moving home during childhood: is it harmful? Fiori, F. for ESRC Centre for Population Change (2021)

ACEs, Places and Inequality: Understanding the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Poverty on Offending in Childhood Jahanshahi, B., Murray, K. and McVie, S. in The British Journal of Criminology (2021)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azab079

Neighbourhood natural space and the narrowing of socioeconomic inequality in children’s social, emotional, and behavioural wellbeing McCrorie, P. R. W., Olsen, J. R., Caryl, F. M., Nicholls, N. and Mitchell, R. (2021) in Wellbeing, Space and Society 
DOI: 10.1016/j.wss.2021.100051

Exposure to unhealthy product advertising: Spatial proximity analysis to schools and socio-economic inequalities in daily exposure measured using Scottish Children’s individual-level GPS data Olsen, J. R., Patterson, C., Caryl, F. M., Robertson, T., Mooney, S. J., Rundle, A. G., Mitchell, R. and Hilton, S. in Health & Place (2021)

[PDF] Mothers living with domestic abuse in Scotland – a tale of poverty and social inequality Skafida, V., Morrison, F., Devaney, J. in Centre for Research on Families and Relationships Research Briefing (2021)

‘Prevalence and social inequality in experiences of domestic abuse among mothers of young children – a study using national survey data from Scotland’ Skafida, V., Morrison, F. and Devaney, J. in Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2021)

‘Nonresident Fathers’ and Grandparents’ Early Years Support and Middle Childhood Socio-Emotional Adjustment’ Parkes, A., Chambers, S. and Buston, K. in Journal of Marriage and Family (2021)
Online open access: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12752

‘Can centre-based childcare buffer against the negative effects of family adversity on child socio-emotional wellbeing?’ Parkes, A., Green, M. and Pearce, A. (in press) European Journal of Public Health (2021)


‘Parents labor supply and childhood obesity: Evidence from Scotland’ Milovanska-Farrington, S. Economics & Human Biology, 38, 100897. (2020)

The relationship between living in urban and rural areas of Scotland and children’s physical activity and sedentary levels: a country-wide cross-sectional analysis Mccrorie, P. , Mitchell, R. , MacDonald, L. , Jones, A., Coombes, E., Schipperijn, J. and Ellaway, A. in BMC Public Health (2020)
doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-8311-y, PMID:32156285, PMCID:PMC7065337

Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s exposure to tobacco retailing based on individual-level GPS data in Scotland Caryl, F. , Shortt, N. K., Pearce, J., Reid, G. and Mitchell, R. in Tobacco Control (2020)
doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054891, PMID:31278083

Maternal employment and the well-being of children living with a lone mother in Scotland Fiori, F. in Demographics Research (2020)
DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2020.43.57

The prevalence of childhood bereavement in Scotland and its relationship with disadvantage: the significance of a public health approach to death, dying and bereavement Paul, S. and Vaswani, N. in Palliative Care and Social Practice (2020)

Growing up Healthy in Families Across the Globe: Cross-Cultural Harmonisation of Childhood Risk-Factors Using Longitudinal Studies from Ireland, Scotland and New Zealand Doran, P., Bradshaw, P., Morton, S., Tautolo, E-S., Williams, J. and Cunningham, C. in Child Indicators Research (2020)
DOI: 10.1007/s12187-020-09732-w

Autism and attachment disorder symptoms in the general population: Prevalence, overlap, and burden Minnis, H., Messow, C-M., McConnachie, A., Bradshaw, P., Briggs, A., Wilson, P. and Gillberg, C. in Developmental Child Welfare (2020)

Briefing paper: The transition to primary school: Growing Up in Scotland study findings (PDF)(2020)

Briefing paper: Living with a lone mother in Scotland. Do children fare better if their mothers are in work? Fiori, F. in Understanding Inequalities (2020) University of Edinburgh


Active commute to school: does distance from school or walkability of the home neighbourhood matter? A national cross-sectional study of children aged 10–11 years, Scotland, UK Macdonald, L., McCrorie, P., Nicholls, N. and Olsen, J. R. in BMJ Open (2019)
doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033628, PMID:31874893, PMCID:PMC7008418

Children’s mobility and environmental exposures in urban landscapes: a cross-sectional study of 10–11 year old Scottish children Olsen, J. R. , Mitchell, R. , McCrorie, P. and Ellaway, A. in Social Science and Medicine (2019)
doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.01.047, PMID:30735924, PMCID:PMC6411928

Parental education, television exposure and children’s early cognitive, language, and behavioral development Kuhhirt, M. and Klein, M. in Social Science Research (2019)

Do bedroom screens and the mealtime environment shape different trajectories of child overweight and obesity? Parkes, A., Green, M. and Pearce, A. in International Journal of Obesity (2019)

Learning in colour: children with grapheme-colour synaesthesia show cognitive benefits in vocabulary and self-evaluated reading Smees, R., Hughes, J., Carmichael, D.A. and Simner, J., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (2019)

How community resources mitigate the association between household poverty and the incidence of adverse childhood experiences Blair, A., Marryat, L., Frank, J. W., International Journal of Public Health (2019)

Factors associated with adverse childhood experiences in Scottish children: a prospective cohort study Marryat, L. and Frank, J., Farr Institute/Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (2019) University of Edinburgh

Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s exposure to tobacco retailing based on individual-level GPS data in Scotland Caryl, F., Shortt, N. K., Pearce, J., Reid, G. and Mitchell, R. in Tobacco Control (2019)

Preschool developmental concerns and adjustment in the early school years: Evidence from a Scottish birth cohort Sim, F., Thompson, L., Marryat, L., Law, J. and Wilson P. in Child Care Health and Development (2019)
doi: 10.1111/cch.12695

Children’s mobility and environmental exposures in urban landscapes: A cross-sectional study of 10–11 year old Scottish children Olsen, J. R., Mitchell R., McCrorie, P. and Ellaway, A. in Social Science and Medicine (2019)


‘Income poverty, material deprivation and lone parenthood’, Treanor, M. C. in R. Nieuwenhuis & L. C. Maldonado (eds.), The triple bind of single-parent families (2018): 81-100. Policy Press.

‘Outdated assumptions about maternal grandmothers? Gender and lineage in grandparent–grandchild relationships’, Jamieson, L., Ribe, E., & Warner, P. (2018). Contemporary Social Science, 13(2), 261-274.

The unanticipated challenges associated with implementing an observational study protocol in a large scale physical activity and GPS data collection, Mccrorie, P., Walker, D. and Ellaway, A. in JMIR Research Protocols (2018)
DOI: 10.2196/resprot.9537, PMID:29712624, PMCID:PMC5952115

Exploring children’s perceptions of their local environment in relation to time spent outside, Hayball, F. , Mccrorie, P. , Kirk, A., Gibson, A.-M. and Ellaway, A. in Children and Society (2018)
DOI: 10.1111/chso.12217, PMID:31656369, PMCID:PMC6794954

Comparison of two methods to assess physical activity prevalence in children: an observational study using a nationally representative sample of Scottish children aged 10–11 years Mccrorie, P. , Mitchell, R. and Ellaway, A. in BMJ Open (2018)
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018369, PMID:29371272, PMCID:PMC5786112

Direct, Indirect, and Buffering Effects of Support for Mothers on Children’s Socioemotional Adjustment Parkes, A. and Sweeting, H. in the Journal of Family Psychology (2018)

Exposure to liquid sweetness in early childhood: artificially‐sweetened and sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption at 4–5 years and risk of overweight and obesity at 7–8 years. Macintyre, A. K., Marryat, L., and Chambers, S. Pediatric Obesity (2018)

Requires login: Fathers at work: explaining the gaps between entitlement to leave policies and uptake Koslowski, A. and Kadar-Satat, G. Community, Work and Family, 1-17. (2018)


Economic Deprivation and Its Effects on Childhood Conduct Problems: The Mediating Role of Family Stress and Investment Factors Sosu, M. and Schmidt, P. in Frontiers in Psychology (2017)

Positive association between sugar consumption and dental decay prevalence independent of oral hygiene in pre-school children: a longitudinal prospective study Skafida, V. and Chambers, S. in Journal of Public Health, 1-9(2017)

The role of public and private natural space in children’s social, emotional and behavioural development in Scotland: A longitudinal study Richardson, E. et al., in Environmental Research (2017) 

Requires login: Are all beliefs equal?’ Investigating the nature and determinants of parental attitudinal beliefs towards educational inclusion Sosu, E. M. and Rydzewska, E. in Educational Studies (2017) doi:10.1080/03055698.2017.1312286

Early maternal employment and children’s vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability: a dynamic approach Klein, M. and Kühhirt, M. in Child Development (2016) DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12796

Family friendly working needs of low income households by ScotCen Social Research for Family Friendly Working Scotland (2017)


Requires login: Tracking emotional and behavioural changes in childhood: Does the strength and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) measure the same constructs across time? (2016) Sosu, E. M., and Schmidt, P.  in Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 1 – 14.

How has child growth around adiposity rebound altered in Scotland since 1990 and what are the factors for weight gain using the Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort 1 (2016) Doi, L., Williams, A. J. and Frank, J. in BMC Public Health DOI10.1186/s12889-016-3752-z

Requires login: What shapes 7-year-olds’ subjective well-being? Prospective analysis of early childhood and parenting using the Growing Up in Scotland study  (2016) Parkes, A; Sweeting, H & Wight, D in Social Psyichiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology doi:10.1007/s00127-016-1246-z

Does parenting help to explain socio-economic inequalities in children’s body mass index trajectories? Longitudinal analysis from the Growing Up in Scotland study (2016) Parkes, A., Sweeting, H., Young, R., and Wight, D., in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 
DOI: 10.1136/jech-2015-206616

Early Childhood Precursors and School age Correlates of Different Internalising Problem Trajectories Among Young Children (2016) Parkes, A., Sweeting, H., and Wight, D. in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

Requires login: Factor Structure and Reliability of the Parent-Informant Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Scottish Preschool Sample (2016) McAloney-Kocaman, K. and McPherson, K. in Early Education and Development http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2017.1228367


Parenting Stress and Parent Support Among Mothers With High and Low Education (2015) Parkes, A., Sweeting, H. and Wight, D. in Journal of Family Psychology http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000129

Requires login: The effects of financial vulnerability and mothers’ emotional distress on child social, emotional and behavioural well-being: a structural equation model Treanor, M in Sociology (2015)

Social assets, low income and child social, emotional and behavioural wellbeing Treanor, M. in Families, Relationships and Societies (2015) doi:10.1332/204674315X14281323517164

Exploring the social, emotional and behavioural development of preschool children: is Glasgow different? Marryat, L., Thompson, L., Minnis, H. and Wilson, P. in International Journal for Equity in Health (2015)
DOI: 10.1186/s12939-014-0129-8

Mothers’ perceived proximity to green space is associated with TV viewing time in children: The Growing Up in Scotland study Aggio, D., Smith, L., Fisher, A. and Hamer, M. in Preventive Medicine Volume 70 (2015)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.11.018


Requires login: Predicting maternal aspirations for their children’s education: The role of parental and child characteristics Sosu, E. in International Journal of Educational Research, 67, 67-79. (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2014.05.003

Change in breastfeeding patterns in Scotland between 2004 and 2011 and the role of health policy Skafida, V. in European Journal of Public Health (2014) doi:10.1093/eurpub/cku029

Do changes in objective and subjective family income predict change in children’s diets over time? Unique insights using a longitudinal cohort study and fixed effects analysis Skafida, V., & Treanor, M. in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, (2014)


Patterns of primary care service use by families with young children Wilson, C., Hogg, R., Henderson, M., Wilson, P. in Family Practice 
DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmt057

The effects of early years childcare on child emotional and behavioural difficulties in lone and co-parent family situations Zagel, H., Kadar-Satat, G., Jacobs, M., Glendinning, A. in Journal of Social Policy Vol 42/ Issue 02, April 2013; 235-258

Login required: Early parental physical punishment and emotional and behavioural outcomes in preschool children Scott, S. et al in Child: Care, Health and Development, 2013; 40: 337-345. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12061

Login required: Deprived or not deprived? Comparing the measured extent of material deprivation using the UK government’s and the Poverty and Social Exclusion surveys’ method of calculating material deprivation, Treanor, M. C. in Quality & Quantity, 2013; 48, 1337-1346


Login required: The inverse operationalisation of concepts for the secondary analysis of quantitative data: an example from the study of parental collaboration, Hinchliffe, S. in Quality & Quantity, 2012; 48, 697-712 DOI 10.1007/s11135-012-9796-y

Login required: You are what you eat? Meal type, socio-economic status and cognitive ability in childhood von Stumm, S in Intelligence 2012; Vol 40, 576-583

What predicts persistent early conduct problems? Evidence from the Growing Up in Scotland cohort Wilson, P., Bradshaw P., Tipping S., et al. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2012; 67:76-80

The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits, and meal enjoyment relate to young children’s diets Skafida, V. in Sociology of Health and Illness 2012; 35: 906-923. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12007

Login required: Infant feeding in relation to eating patterns in the second year of life and weight status in the fourth year, Abraham, E.C et al, Glasgow Caledonian University in Public Health Nutrition, 2012; 15(9), 1705–1714 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012002686

Login required: Juggling Work and Motherhood: The impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: A Survival Analysis on Growing Up in Scotland Data Skafida, V. in Maternal and Child Health Journal , 2012; Vol 16 No 22


Login required: The relative importance of social class and maternal education for breast-feeding initiation Skafida,V. in Public Health Nutrition 2012; Vol 12 Issue 12